The TNF family member TL1A induces IL-22 secretion in committed human Th17 cells via IL-9 induction


TL1A contributes to the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including those of the bowel by enhancing TH1, TH17, and TH2 responses. TL1A mediates a strong costimulation of these TH subsets, particularly of mucosal CCR9+ T cells. However, the signaling pathways that TL1A induces in different TH subsets are incompletely understood. We investigated the function of TL1A on human TH17 cells. TL1A, together with TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-23, enhanced the secretion of IL-17 and IFN-γ from human CD4+ memory T cells. TL1A induced expression of the transcription factors BATF and T-bet that correlated with the secretion of IL-17 and IFN-γ. In contrast, TL1A alone induced high levels of IL-22 in memory CD4+ T cells and committed TH17 cells. However, TL1A did not enhance expression of IL-17A in TH17 cells. Expression of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which regulates the expression of IL-22 was not affected by TL1A. Transcriptome analysis of TH17 cells revealed increased expression of IL-9 in response to TL1A. Blocking IL-9 receptor antibodies abrogated TL1A-induced IL-22 secretion. Furthermore, TL1A increased IL-9 production by peripheral TH17 cells isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. These data suggest that TL1A differentially induces expression of TH17 effector cytokines IL-17, -9, and -22 and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention in TH17-driven chronic inflammatory diseases.

Journal of Leukocyte Biology